In all economies, SMEs are the main creators of jobs, but only in some countries have significant export capacity.

In recent years, to the surprise of many economists, Spain has not suffered a loss as significant as other Western countries its share in world trade. Also in recent quarters manifests a very strong export growth in the chemical industry and metal.


Slight loss of export market

According to World Trade Organization, In 2000, Spanish exports of goods accounted for 1.8% of total exports. In 2010, the share of Spain was 1.6%. This is a loss of market share of 0.2. If we consider that in the meantime, China has increased from 3.9% to 10.4% and that countries like France and Italy has been reduced, respectively, its presence in world exports from 4.7% to 3.4% 3.7% to 2.9%, the Spanish position has not been so negative. Even Germany and the United States lost a greater share of market.

In addition, the Spanish situation is also striking because, for much of the beginning of the century, Spain has undergone an intense and prolonged growth and since 2008 an intense economic crisis. With the growth, most companies prefer to supply the domestic market and lose the incentive to export. Only companies with foreign investment engaged in exporting tend to maintain a presence.

In generalized seizures, such as the current export becomes more complicated because every country is trying to do and, therefore, is more competition is more intense. Must have some secret Spanish companies lose export market share less than other countries which are usually considered better off.

Export, a matter of big business

It is believed that approximately 55% of Spanish exports are concentrated in five hundred companies. In Spain, according to the National Institute of Statistics Less than 1% of companies have over fifty employees. Consequently, the vast majority of the business for small-scale enterprises.In fact if we consider the definition offered by the European Commission, 95% of Spanish companies are micro to have fewer than 10 workers. 4% are small businesses that do not reach the 50 workers. And the measures companies with fewer than 250 employees, would be 0.6%.

One of the problems of the Spanish economy is that many of these companies do not export or a passive mode. Passivity means that there is no real export orientation and, in the best case, an intermediary vedene about products, target market, no manufacturer’s mark present. This will lose a significant portion of the value and export earnings.

The lack of internationalization

It is considered that the first reason for this absence causing export propensity or bad is a matter of corporate culture. According to Jose Maria Begona Cano and Bevia, “the Spanish company, is believed to be overly focused on the local market and a high aversion to assume the risks of internationalization”.

Cultural issues are accompanied on the one hand, the lack of qualified personnel in the company. Open and maintain foreign markets requires a different personal training to the national market. These personnel are scarce, partly because of this, small and medium enterprises face significant challenges in attracting to his breast.This does not mean that SMEs do not have staff competence in foreign trade, the problem is that their presence is insufficient to meet the remains of internationalization of the Spanish economy. In fact, even the big Spanish companies have experienced problems of lack of staff willing to expatriation.

Ignorance of languages

One of the main reasons why the Spanish are unlikely to expatriation is the limited language skills. Spain is a country with a serious problem in the field of knowledge of foreign languages. It has invested heavily in education in recent decades, but the problem remains.
According to the Euro barometer on language in the European Union 2006, Spain is among the EU countries where the majority of the population declared not know any foreign languages.
The debate on the resolution of problems school failure Should be added to the relative fit of the training in terms of employ ability. And at this point, foreign language training is important.

The lack of a major impetus exporter is also motivated by economic factors. Especially, for the financing difficulties. The mobilization of resources requires a foreign presence is significant. Despite the positive contributions of organizations such as ICEX, the lack of financial resources seems to rein in companies outside his possible departure.Solving these problems would be desirable to boost exports. They should play in the coming years the driving role of the Spanish economy so we can go further by encouraging economic growth.