In recent years there have been a number of changes that have transformed the industrial structures and productive

The most recent processes affecting the industry globally are transforming industrial and territorial reality. Industrial restructuring in the most advanced countries has led to the emergence of declining industrial regions and other specialized in so-called emerging sectors. On the other hand, has increased participation of developing countries in international industrial environments, and so have appeared which are called zones, sites endowed with good infrastructure and services in establishing import oriented companies. Their proliferation coincides with the emergence of newly industrialized countries, such as Mexico, Brazil, Singapore, Hong Kong, South Korea, Thailand, Indonesia, and Malaysia. Some of the issues related to the process of industrial restructuring deal with the transnationalization industrial, technological innovation, decentralization and productive space and emptying industrial urban spaces.

Industrial Transnationalization

Companies operating in an economic space that is global and, in a globalization process that reinforces the interdependencies between different regions and countries. In this context we speak of multinational or transnational. This phenomenon began to spread from the middle of the twentieth century, as it was gaining momentum corporate concentration, especially in sectors that require large capital investment and technology, and have standardized production. The main headquarters of multinational companies are located in the United States, European Union and Japan, to have advantages like broader markets, skilled employment and economic and political stability. However, production tends to be located in peripheral areas where production is cheaper, as in Latin America , Southeast Asia or Eastern Europe.


Technological innovation

The technological revolution has restructured the industrial system as a whole, changing the size of establishments, making them appear new organizational models for companies, demanding more skilled workers with profiles and creating new industrial areas. This new phase, called by some “technical-scientific capitalism”, is based on information technologies in computing and electronics. Therefore, the fastest growing sectors are the computing, telecommunications, robotics, industrial and consumer electronics, renewable energy. These changes require heavy investment in R + D + I, and also require having increasingly important activities such as planning, design, management, marketing and quality control. It’s called outsourcing industry.

Technology has altered the industrial location factors, because it reduces the influence of transport of raw materials and energy resources. Also causes increased technical infrastructure, environmental quality of the territory, and of the need to be near research centers. It also causes the need to segment and decentralize the production of the factory into smaller units and with great freedom of location, thanks to the mobility of information. Despite this greater freedom, technology companies tend to focus on certain points, because it reduces risk and enhances the integration between them. Two of these spaces would technopoles and technology parks.

Decentralization and productive space

Since the late seventies, the decentralization of production is to break down the production, previously concentrated on a single plant, in several places. This has increased the number of production centers, but also has led to the disintegration of the large factories, with implications in terms of employment in some regions. The relocation of production stages is usually placed in outlying areas where labor is less qualified, earn less and have lower demands. However, the high technological levels achieved are those that facilitate decentralization and make feasible the coordination between different units of the same company.

This process opens a new system based on flexible specialization in constant innovation, adapting to changes in skilled labor and business competition, ending the standardized mass production to the extreme hierarchy workplaces and strong concentration in large cities.

In advanced countries, the decentralization of production areas are characterized by the spread of small and medium enterprises in particular areas, which tends to dominate one or two industries in which it is easier segmentation productive. This creates dense business networks between industries specializing in the manufacture of certain parts, which leads us to speak of the industrial districts, which are defined as areas of specialization with a predominance of small industries, such as textiles Alcoy. In the case of developing countries should discuss the impact of new free zones, as discussed previously.

Emptying industrial urban spaces

In recent decades there has been reducing the productive accumulation process carried out in industrial areas since the beginning of industrialization. The industrial crisis of the seventies and have since experienced restructuring forced the abandonment of cities and peripheral location scouting. This is what constitutes the casting industry, the abandonment of the city by industrial activities, with all that this implies of job losses, but also enormous opportunities for recovery of considerable size plots in central locations.

This process is a reflection of the crisis of industrial development model itself from other times and with different localization patterns. Industrial abandonment have followed an increase in the outsourcing of the city, and also of the very industries that have remained in the city some of its buildings but now for the production of advanced services.